Monday, November 10, 2008

Basic Techniques and Drills

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This is not a comprehensive list of techniques and drills, but those that I personally teach. Notes and Japanese terms also included.

Basic Directions/Positions
High - Jodan / Middle - Chudan / Low - Gedan
Left - Hidari / Right - Migi
Centerline - Seichusen, Pattern line – Embusen

Karate Techniques (Basic Strikes, Kicks, Blocks, and Stances)
Knife hand – Shuto uchi
Ridge hand – Haito
Elbow strike - Empi uchi
Hammer fist – Tettsui uchi
Back fist - Ura ken
Spear hand thrust - Nukite
One knuckle punch - Ippon ken
Palm strike - Teisho uchi
Reverse Punch – Gyakuzuki

Front snap kick - Mae geri
Roundhouse kick - Mawashi geri
Side thrust kick - Yoku geri kekomi
Side snap kick - Yoko geri keagi
Back kick - Ushiro geri
Crescent kick - Mikazuki geri
Knee kick - Hiza geri

Brush block
High block - Jodan uke
Outward Middle block – Chudan soto uke
Inward Middle block - Chudan uchi uke
Low block - Gedan barai
Knife hand block - Shuto uke
Support hand block - Morote uke
Elbow block - Empi uke
Cross arm block - Juji uke

Attention stance
Ready stance
Horse stance - Kiba dachi
Straddle stance - Shiko dachi
Cat foot stance - Neko ashi dachi
Back stance - Kokutsu dachi
Front stance - Zenkutsu dachi
Hourglass stances - Sanchin dachi
Crane stance - Tsuru dachi

muay Thai Techniques:
Front push kick, Switch kick, Inside leg kick,
Power kick, Cut kick, Clinchwork

Boxing Techniques:
Punches - jab, cross, hook, uppercut, shovel hook, overhand cross
Parries - inward, outward, low, glove parry, slipping parry

Some basic types of footwork used in getting closer to the opponent.

Yoriashi - move the front foot, then the back foot.
Ayumiashi - the back foot moves forward (as if walking).
Suriashi / Tsugiashi - back foot steps up to the front foot (no crossing over).
Surikomi - crossover step using the back foot.

This includes throws, takedowns, as well as seizing & controlling techniques such as joint locks, chokes, gripping, and small joint manipulation. These deal with various body points, including vital organs, muscles, joints, and nerve clusters. When using locks, maintain pressure and use pain to control or subdue the opponent.

Control all the joints in the arm when applying wrist / arm locks, and to push with your hands rather than pull. Do not allow the opponent to use his or her strength to resist - find the center of gravity and attack their weak line of movement. Use circular movements to defeat the linearity of the human body. Study kuzushi and sensitivity to understand not only grappling, but striking.

Some Basic Locks:
Various wrist and arm locks, Rear naked choke, Guillotine choke, leg and ankle locks

Some Basic Sweeps, Throws, Takedowns:
Major outer and inner reaps - Osoto gari, Ouchi gari
Minor outer and inner reaps - Kosoto gari, Kouchi gari
Foot sweep - Okuriashi harai, Forward foot sweep - Deashi harai
Hip toss, Shoulder throw variations
Sacrifice throw variations
Double or single leg takedown

Basic Ground Positions:
Mount, side mount / control, guard, half guard

Alternate sparring
Take turns striking, with no blocking or hard contact.

Call sparring
Call a technique or series of techniques, and wait for your partner to confirm that he or she is ready before attacking. Your partner’s goal is to successfully defend all techniques (via evasion, parrying, and/or blocking). It is then your partner's turn to attack. When both partners have improved at this drill, they may both simply take turns delivering a series of attacks without calling out techniques. At first, this drill should be done at half intensity with light to no contact. Also, counterattacks should not be used in this drill, as the goal is to develop quick, reflexive defenses. However, once skill is gained, counterattacks may be drilled using the following routines.

Slip and duck (Reaction and combination drill)
This drills additional body shifting against punches at close range. The key is to develop both looseness and quick reactions when cornered. At first, the hands simply protect the face. As you improve, add counter punches during and after slips and ducks. This drill may be practiced with or without striking pads.

Sticking hands (Sensitivity drill)
You and a partner face each other in fighting stances, with your hands open in guard position. You and your partner should keep your hands or arms in contact with each other throughout the drill. Practice redirection using soft techniques that flow into one another, while maintaining good posture. As often as possible, simultaneously redirect and counter attack. Do not rush the drill at first - you and your partner will both slowly use redirection on one another - 'countering counters', so to speak. This helps 'musubi' / connection and sensitivity to direction of force, as well as bunkai. It will also help you to not depend only on your eyes at close range. This drill helps with clinchwork, Ki Ken Tai no Ichi and Hei Jo Shin.

Kuzushi (Balance breaking)
Clinch with your partner, and use momentum, body mechanics, clinchwork, foot sweeps/reaps, etc. to try to break one another's balance. Try to create openings for takedowns. Major outer reap uses the back leg on their opposite leg. Major inner reap aims for the inside (mirror image). Minor outer reap uses the front leg on the same side (mirror image). Minor inner reap aims to the opposite leg.

Shadow Boxing
Practice performing "freestyle" combinations on your own. Footwork, breathing, rhythm and flow of techniques, slipping, and a continuous active guard are among the most important things in shadow boxing. Visualize an opponent as you practice - imagine different scenarios and fighting rhythms.

If you are new to this, do it for three 1-minute rounds at half speed. As your technique and/or stamina improve, build up to at least three 3-minute rounds at full speed. Always take a one minute rest between rounds. Of course, one can always perform more rounds as desired / needed.

Once you are ready, do it with a partner at half speed. Maintain some distance from one another - and read each other's movements as you attack, defend, and use footwork. Watch angles, body language, and rhythm as you apply what you learned in previous drills. Partner shadow boxing helps adapt technical skills to a real sparring situation. Eventually, move on to light sparring. Perform strikes closer to your partner, and at full speed. However, use little to no contact until you have improved control, and have gotten used to techniques being thrown at you.

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